翻译的理论

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引 言   翻译是一种艺术,有如演员表演,非背诵台词了事。表演者先得用心研究剧本的内容,而后动作要逼真,表情要感人,饰女王就得象个女王,饰荡妇就得象个荡妇。翻译家也是要做到这样成功的表现,才能达到艺术的水准。艺术之所以为艺术在“美”。“美”的概念按意大利美学家克洛齐所说:“成功的表现就是‘美’。一件成功的翻译作品,它的艺术价值不在创作之下。并且,对同一作品的内容而言,翻译者与作者在心理状态上是一致的,而就文字运用技巧来说,创作者是以准确的文字,将个人独特的思想,幻想或概念做有效的表达,而翻译者也是以准确的文字来做有效的表达,且必须成功地表达原文本意,所以二者的困难都在文字的运用技巧,有时翻译者因为两国语文上根本的差异,在拣剔字句上比创作者所遇到的困难更大。谈到心理状态的一致,翻译者就更为困难了。当一为诗人听到阳光在唱歌,或看见风在作画,而创作一首诗的时候,不管隔了多久,当后来的翻译者再翻译这首诗时,必定也是全神贯注,象那位诗人一样,听到了阳光的歌声,或看到了风的彩画。唯有这样的翻译者才能成功地表现创作者的艺术美感。”      侯官严又陵氏说:“译事三难:信、达、雅;求其信已大难矣!顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也。”信的意思是说,译文对于原文的意思无所增减变易。达,是说译者能使读者像他自己一样了解原文的本意。雅,是说译文要具有文学上的艺术美感。重复这几句话说明了一件成功的翻译作品,委实得之不易。      本课程集英语系专家二十多年的讲授翻译、作文和修辞学等课程的丰富经验而成。 (1) 辨别歧义 (2) 标点功能 (3) 传声绘意 (4) 词意畅达 (5) 典译三式 (6) 拣剔字句 (7) 简明平易 (8) 句式研究 (9) 译注问题 (10) 语文特性 辨别歧义   辨别歧义是翻译求信实最重要的事,望文生义,难免有错。同一个字在不同的文句中不仅是意义不同,且有相反者,故文字重推敲,以达正确。例如诗经’瞻仰’篇云:’妇有长舌,惟厉之阶。’此厉字为不幸或是非之意,该诗句可意译为        Her long tongue’s like a flight of stairs,        Which leads to miserable cares. 而’垂带而厉’一语中之厉字为雅致之意,该句可译为:They hang girdles elegantly down.又’厉声而言’一语中之厉字则为粗意,该句可译为:He speaks in harsh tone of voice.俗语’苦船’乃晕船之意,例如说,某女士容易犯苦船之病,可英译为:She is a bad sailor.或译为:She is always sick on board.曹操’短歌行’云: ’对酒当歌,人生几何?譬如朝露,去日苦多。 ’这首诗最后一句那个苦字,翻译起来是颇费思考的,兹录曼殊上人’三昧集’中此诗之英译如下:         Here is wine, let’s sing;         For man’s life is short,         Like the morning dew,         It’s best days gone by. 诗经’蓼莪’篇云:’父兮生我,母兮鞠我。’此二句可译为:"Father begot me;/Mother reared me."但在英文中各种动物生产小动物均有其各别不同的动词,不像中文用一’生’字可通用。英文中’生小牛’为"calve";’生小猪’为"farrow";’生小羊’为"yeah",且此类用字不能相混,否则,必闹笑话。   关于望文生义而误解字词的情形,多发生在疏忽习语,俗语,和典故的原意,翻译时如遇没有把握的字词应多查阅字典。例如:"What a yellow dog!"此句中之yellow dog意指流氓或无赖,并非黄狗。又如:"a white elephant"意指某人大而无用,并非白象。又如He got a green bonnet after his marriage.’’此句中的"a green bonnet"意指一败涂地或一筹莫展,并非绿帽子。此句如译为:’他婚后戴上了绿帽子。’岂不笑话。   再者,在辨别歧义时应注意如果直译不近情理的字词,则应采意译。下面这段文字是写孔子究竟是怎样的一个人,如果将斜体的字直译,定不妥当,而意译则近情理。   He was too moral, to be moralistic, too pure to be puritanic, too broadly human to be all-too-human, too consistently moderate to be immoderate even in the virtue of moderateness.                --The Real Confucius   (有至德之人,不务繁文;纯洁的人,不拘小节;有人情味的人,近情理而不苟同;讲求中庸之道的人,作事不过火,亦不会不尽力。)   我国文字同一字可作名词或形容词,亦可作动词,在文言文此类情形更多,换句话说,同词异类,而无词类变化,译成英文则应注意词类之不同。例如老子’道德经’第七十三章:   夫唯病病,是以不病;圣人不病,以其病病,是以不病。 此处之’病病’前后二字虽同,而词类异。英国汉学家James Legge将前一病字译为形容词片语sick of(有忧虑之意) ,而把后一病字译为名词片语your sickness(有过错或缺点之意),尚称恰当。今将其译文录于后,以作参考:   Only when you are sick of your sickness will you cease to be sick. The sage is never sick, because he is sick of his sickness. This is why he is not sick.   另外须一提的是,同词类的转借语,亦应特别注意。例如韦庄’菩萨蛮’诗句: ’人人尽说江南好,游客只令江南老。’此处’令’字andlin英译为"stay in"颇为恰当。兹将他这两句的译文录于后,以作参考:      All men speak      Well of the South.      Travelers all      Stay in the South,      Till they are aged.          --Candlin, "The Herald Wind", P.33   有些习语或俗语必须查文学术语辞典,不可因一般字典上查不到则按上下文意去猜,那样颇为不妥。作家所用字汇除了像杰姆斯•乔易士(8),因需要而创字外,通常都是有所根据的,只要耐心查考,必可查出,切勿望文生义而译成不近情理的文意。例如费兹杰罗(9),’大亭小传’中有一句:   On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along-shore, the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.               --F. Lq. Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"   (礼拜天的早晨,当

引 言   翻译是一种艺术,有如演员表演,非背诵台词了事。表演者先得用心研究剧本的内容,而后动作要逼真,表情要感人,饰女王就得象个女王,饰荡妇就得象个荡妇。翻译家也是要做到这样成功的表现,才能达到艺术的水准。艺术之所以为艺术在“美”。“美”的概念按意大利美学家克洛齐所说:“成功的表现就是‘美’。一件成功的翻译作品,它的艺术价值不在创作之下。并且,对同一作品的内容而言,翻译者与作者在心理状态上是一致的,而就文字运用技巧来说,创作者是以准确的文字,将个人独特的思想,幻想或概念做有效的表达,而翻译者也是以准确的文字来做有效的表达,且必须成功地表达原文本意,所以二者的困难都在文字的运用技巧,有时翻译者因为两国语文上根本的差异,在拣剔字句上比创作者所遇到的困难更大。谈到心理状态的一致,翻译者就更为困难了。当一为诗人听到阳光在唱歌,或看见风在作画,而创作一首诗的时候,不管隔了多久,当后来的翻译者再翻译这首诗时,必定也是全神贯注,象那位诗人一样,听到了阳光的歌声,或看到了风的彩画。唯有这样的翻译者才能成功地表现创作者的艺术美感。”      侯官严又陵氏说:“译事三难:信、达、雅;求其信已大难矣!顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也。”信的意思是说,译文对于原文的意思无所增减变易。达,是说译者能使读者像他自己一样了解原文的本意。雅,是说译文要具有文学上的艺术美感。重复这几句话说明了一件成功的翻译作品,委实得之不易。      本课程集英语系专家二十多年的讲授翻译、作文和修辞学等课程的丰富经验而成。 (1) 辨别歧义 (2) 标点功能 (3) 传声绘意 (4) 词意畅达 (5) 典译三式 (6) 拣剔字句 (7) 简明平易 (8) 句式研究 (9) 译注问题 (10) 语文特性 辨别歧义   辨别歧义是翻译求信实最重要的事,望文生义,难免有错。同一个字在不同的文句中不仅是意义不同,且有相反者,故文字重推敲,以达正确。例如诗经’瞻仰’篇云:’妇有长舌,惟厉之阶。’此厉字为不幸或是非之意,该诗句可意译为        Her long tongue’s like a flight of stairs,        Which leads to miserable cares. 而’垂带而厉’一语中之厉字为雅致之意,该句可译为:They hang girdles elegantly down.又’厉声而言’一语中之厉字则为粗意,该句可译为:He speaks in harsh tone of voice.俗语’苦船’乃晕船之意,例如说,某女士容易犯苦船之病,可英译为:She is a bad sailor.或译为:She is always sick on board.曹操’短歌行’云: ’对酒当歌,人生几何?譬如朝露,去日苦多。 ’这首诗最后一句那个苦字,翻译起来是颇费思考的,兹录曼殊上人’三昧集’中此诗之英译如下:         Here is wine, let’s sing;         For man’s life is short,         Like the morning dew,         It’s best days gone by. 诗经’蓼莪’篇云:’父兮生我,母兮鞠我。’此二句可译为:"Father begot me;/Mother reared me."但在英文中各种动物生产小动物均有其各别不同的动词,不像中文用一’生’字可通用。英文中’生小牛’为"calve";’生小猪’为"farrow";’生小羊’为"yeah",且此类用字不能相混,否则,必闹笑话。   关于望文生义而误解字词的情形,多发生在疏忽习语,俗语,和典故的原意,翻译时如遇没有把握的字词应多查阅字典。例如:"What a yellow dog!"此句中之yellow dog意指流氓或无赖,并非黄狗。又如:"a white elephant"意指某人大而无用,并非白象。又如He got a green bonnet after his marriage.’’此句中的"a green bonnet"意指一败涂地或一筹莫展,并非绿帽子。此句如译为:’他婚后戴上了绿帽子。’岂不笑话。   再者,在辨别歧义时应注意如果直译不近情理的字词,则应采意译。下面这段文字是写孔子究竟是怎样的一个人,如果将斜体的字直译,定不妥当,而意译则近情理。   He was too moral, to be moralistic, too pure to be puritanic, too broadly human to be all-too-human, too consistently moderate to be immoderate even in the virtue of moderateness.                --The Real Confucius   (有至德之人,不务繁文;纯洁的人,不拘小节;有人情味的人,近情理而不苟同;讲求中庸之道的人,作事不过火,亦不会不尽力。)   我国文字同一字可作名词或形容词,亦可作动词,在文言文此类情形更多,换句话说,同词异类,而无词类变化,译成英文则应注意词类之不同。例如老子’道德经’第七十三章:   夫唯病病,是以不病;圣人不病,以其病病,是以不病。 此处之’病病’前后二字虽同,而词类异。英国汉学家James Legge将前一病字译为形容词片语sick of(有忧虑之意) ,而把后一病字译为名词片语your sickness(有过错或缺点之意),尚称恰当。今将其译文录于后,以作参考:   Only when you are sick of your sickness will you cease to be sick. The sage is never sick, because he is sick of his sickness. This is why he is not sick.   另外须一提的是,同词类的转借语,亦应特别注意。例如韦庄’菩萨蛮’诗句: ’人人尽说江南好,游客只令江南老。’此处’令’字andlin英译为"stay in"颇为恰当。兹将他这两句的译文录于后,以作参考:      All men speak      Well of the South.      Travelers all      Stay in the South,      Till they are aged.          --Candlin, "The Herald Wind", P.33   有些习语或俗语必须查文学术语辞典,不可因一般字典上查不到则按上下文意去猜,那样颇为不妥。作家所用字汇除了像杰姆斯•乔易士(8),因需要而创字外,通常都是有所根据的,只要耐心查考,必可查出,切勿望文生义而译成不近情理的文意。例如费兹杰罗(9),’大亭小传’中有一句:   On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along-shore, the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.               --F. Lq. Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"   (礼拜天的早晨,当教堂钟声在沿岸村落响起,男男女女回盖兹此家来,在他家草地上,欢欣鼓舞地闪来闪去。)句中"the world and its mistress"一片语,意指’男男女女’,如直译文字表面含义或其他文意,均属不妥。   关于我国语文文言虚字甚多,不易翻译。如遇惊叹意义之虚字不难译出,例如’子兮,子兮!’ (语体文意:’天呀,天呀!’)可英译为:"Oh dear,oh dear!"但是大部份的虚字不可勉强译出。我国语文的连接词亦然,例如: ’子于是日哭,则不歌。’其中连接词’则’字,整句英译后便隐没于句构中, "On a day on which Confucius had been weeping, he did not sing."此乃英文句构与中文句构不同之处。 辨别歧义 错误!嵌入对象无效。

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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:05:43 12楼
    41.……值得……    A good book is worth (worth while) reading hundred times.    好书值得阅读百遍。   42.为了……    He worked hard for the purpose of supporting his family.    他辛劳工作为了养家。    We drink tea in order to quench our thirst and wine to dissipate our sorrow.    喝茶为解渴;饮酒以消愁。   43.假藉……    He collected money under the pretense of patriotism.    他假藉爱国募集金钱。   44.居然……    It is strange that the man should treat his brother so cruelly.    此人居然对其兄弟如此残忍。   45.但愿……    Would that I were young again.    但愿我又年少。 基础句式之6   46.本身……    Knowledge is a thing good in itself, but may become harmful by its use.    知识本身有益,但因其运用不当而有害。   47.独自……    He lives in the house by himself.    他独自一个人住在这栋房子里。   48.只要……    So long as (As long as) you are innocent, you need not fear.    只要你是无辜的,你就无需惧怕。   49.就……而言    So far as (As far as) grammar is concerned,this article leaves no errors.    就文法而言,这篇文章没有什么毛病。   50.曾经有过的最伟大的……    Dr. Sun Yat-sen was as great a leader as ever lived in China.    孙逸仙博士是中国曾经有过的最伟大的领袖。    Confucius was as great as any teacher that ever lived in China.    孔子是中国曾经有过的最伟大的老师。 51.就……这个行业而言    He is a good teacher, as teachers go.    就老师这个行业而言,他是个好老师。   52.就好像……    A good teacher, as it were, the intellectual father of his pupil.    一位好老师就好像是学生知识之父。   53.与其……不如……    You might as well advise me to give up my fortune as my argument.    与其叫我放弃辩论,不如叫我放弃财富。   54.……如……    It is with time as with the current of water;    once it goes, it never comes back again.    时光如流水,一去不回头。   55.……如同一样的    I read the same book as you read.    我所读的那本书与你所读的一样。 基础句式之7   56.连……也没有    I have never so much as set foot on the neighbouring village, though I have moved here almost a month.    虽然我搬到这里来将近一月,连附近的村庄也没有去过。   57.与……甚有关系    Bravery and perseverance have much to do with the career of one’s life.    勇气与毅力与一个人一生的事业甚有关系。   58.与……没有关系    Rank or power has nothing to do with true greatness.    权势与真正的伟大没有关系。   59.……不……勿……    Rank or power has nothing to do with true greatness.    己所不欲,勿施于人。   60.除了……什么还能……    What can save China but education?    除了教育,什么还能救中国呢?   61.部份由于……部份由于……    What with public business and what with private affairs, I have no leisure.    部份由于公事,部份由于私事,我没有空。   62.……难以形容    The hardship of the journey is more than I can describe.    一路上的艰辛,难以形容。    The world knows his worth.    世人知其伟大。   64.……与……之间相差几希    There is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous.    神圣与荒唐之间相差几希。   65.……重要,……更重要    Wealth is something, but health is everything.    财富重要,健康更重要。 基础句式之7   56.连……也没有    I have never so much as set foot on the neighbouring village, though I have moved here almost a month.    虽然我搬到这里来将近一月,连附近的村庄也没有去过。   57.与……甚有关系    Bravery and perseverance have much to do with the career of one’s life.    勇气与毅力与一个人一生的事业甚有关系。   58.与……没有关系    Rank or power has nothing to do with true greatness.    权势与真正的伟大没有关系。   59.……不……勿……    Rank or power has nothing to do with true greatness.    己所不欲,勿施于人。   60.除了……什么还能……    What can save China but education?    除了教育,什么还能救中国呢?
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:05:55 13楼
    61.部份由于……部份由于……    What with public business and what with private affairs, I have no leisure.    部份由于公事,部份由于私事,我没有空。   62.……难以形容    The hardship of the journey is more than I can describe.    一路上的艰辛,难以形容。    The world knows his worth.    世人知其伟大。   64.……与……之间相差几希    There is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous.    神圣与荒唐之间相差几希。   65.……重要,……更重要    Wealth is something, but health is everything.    财富重要,健康更重要。 基础修辞之2 清晰明白(Clearness)   清晰明白的原则是在造句时应注意下面六项常常容易犯的错误:    (1)修饰语位置放错(Misplaced Modifiers);    (2)不联结修饰语的错误(Dangling Modifiers);    (3)不合逻辑的结构(Illogical Construction);    (4)分裂不联贯的结构(Split Construction) ;    (5)语意不一致的错误(Consistency) ;    (6)代名词的混用(Reference of Pronoun)。   兹将这六项分别举例于后: (1)修饰语位置放错(Misplaced Modifiers)   错She was wearing a colorful scarf around her shoulders, which she had bought in Mexico.   对Around her shoulders she was wearing a colorful scarf, which she had bought in Mexico.    她肩上围着一条从墨西哥购得的绮丽的披肩。   错A car drove down the street decked with ribbons.   对A car decked with ribbons drove down the street.   一部装饰丝带的汽车驶过街道。 (2)不联结修饰语的错误(Dangling Modifiers)   (a)不联结分词的错误(Dangling Participles)    错Having solved the first problem, the second must be solved now.    对Having solved the first problem, I must now solve the second.    解决第一个问题之后,我现在必须解决第二个问题。   (b)不联结不定词的错误(Dangling Infinitives)    错To seek a new path for developing his forte, the task was assumed by him.    对To seek a new path for developing his forte, he assumed the task.    为了寻求发展才华的新路线,他承担起这份工作。   (c)不联结动名词的错误(Dangling Gerunds)    有些动词诸如"avoid/defer/deny/delay/postpone/risk",等在否定句构之后常接动名词作受词,如果动名词需接代名诃时,此代名词应该用所有格;在现代英语句法中即使是肯定句构,其后亦采这种句法。例如:He denied their having come.    错I can’t risk you signing the contract without my consent.    对I can’t risk your signing the contract without my consent.    没有我的同意我不敢冒你签约的危险。 (3)不合逻辑的结构(Illogical Construction)   错My younger sister is as beautiful, if not more beautiful, than you.   对My younger sister is as beautiful as you, if not more beautiful.   错He haven’t and won’t work hard for supporting his family.   对He haven’t worked and won’t work hard for supporting his family.   他不曾尽力养家,将来也不会尽力。 (4)分裂不联贯的结构(Split Construction)   (a)在及物动词与单纯的受词之间不应插入副词。    错:He flew into the air the kite.    对:He flew the kite into the air.    他把风筝放到天空去了。   (b)在及物动词与含有修饰语的受词之间可以插入副词。    错He flew the kite into the air which his brother made.    对He flew into the air the kite which his brother made.    他把他兄弟所做的风筝放到天空去了。   (c)在不定词的符号"to"与其原形动词之间不能插上任何的字或片语。    错The teacher asked the students to within half an hour finish the assignments.    对:The teacher asked the students to finish the assignments within half an hour.    老师叫学生在半个钟头之内将指定作业做完。 (5)语意不一致的错误(Consistency)      错My friend asked whether I knew the coach and would he be with the team.   对My friend asked whether I knew the coach and whether he would be with the team.   我的朋友问我是否认得那位教练,并且问我那位教练是否跟他的球队在一起。 (6)代名词的混用(Reference of Pronouns)   (a)泛指某人的"one"不能用"you"来代替。    错When one’s feet are tired, you should bathe them in warm salt water.    对When one’s feet are tired, one should bathe them in warm salt water.    当一个人的脚倦累了,他应该将他的脚泡在醎的温水里。   (b)指示代名词后不能再接人称代名词。    错:With a view to keeping a normal sight, those of us who wear glasses should have theireyes examined frequently.    对:With a view to keeping a normal sight, most of us have to have their eyes examined at regular intervals.    为了保持正常视力,我们大部分的人都必须每隔一段时间去检查眼睛。
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:06:41 14楼
    基础修辞之3 统一一贯原则(Coherence)]   统一一贯原则是指句法语意不可残缺不全或者一个句子的二部份在时式上有首尾不一贯的毛病应该加以避免: (a)语意混乱或残缺(Mixed Figures of Speech)  (Confused) My castles in air came tumbling down into a bottomless heap.  (Improved) My fancy comes to nothing in the long run.   我的幻想终于破灭。 (b)错综不清的结构(Mixed Construction)  (Careless) I wrote and asked my nephew to let me know about the horses as soon as he can.  (Improved) I wrote to my nephew and asked him to let me know about the horses as soon ax he could.  我写信给我的侄儿,并叫他尽快告知我关于那些马匹的事情。  (Careless) I have been reading Thackeray’s Henry Esmond,    who is one of the best authors of the nineteenth century.  (Improved) I have been reading Henry Esmond, a novel by    Thackeray, who is one of the best authors of the nineteenth century.  我一直在读戴寇瑞的’伊斯曼德’那本小说,戴寇瑞是十九世纪最佳作家之一。 (c)错误的结构(Faulty Construction)  (Faulty) This theme to which our teacher referred to was difficult.  (Improved) This theme to which our teacher referred was difficult.  老师所指的这个题材很难。  (Faulty) She told us that she has difficult to follow the doctor’s advice,      although it seemed easy enough.  (Improved) She told us that she had difficulty following the doctor’s      advice, although it seemed easy enough.  她告诉我们,那虽是件看似容易的事,但是要她遵守医师的忠告却有困难。 (d)观点上的问题(Point of View)  所谓观点上的问题,  其一是一个句子的造成应以主要子句的主词为立场;即是说,另一子句的主词在不必要更换的情形下不要更换,且最好是与主要子句的主词一致;  其二是名词与代名词之间的关系应注意单复数的一致性。  (Poor) He ran to the station and the train was taken by him.  (Good) He ran to the station and took the train.  他跑到车站,搭上了火车。  (Poor) If one tries hard, they, can accomplish much  (Good) If one tries hard, one can accomplish much.  如果一个人尽力去做,他定会大有作为。  (Wrong) The two words that we wish to distinguish is "house" and "barn".  (Right) The two words that we wish to distinguish are "house" and "barn".  我们要区分的是’房屋’与’仓库’二字。 基础修辞之4
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:09:46 15楼
    基础修辞之4 强语势的修辞法(The Rules of Emphasis) (1)字词的位置(Word Position)  (Unemphatic) Johnson was the only one to agree with me, however.  (Better) Johnson was, however, the only one to agree with me.  然而只有詹森一个人同意我。  (Unemphatic) Joseph is the man we can rely on.  (Better) Joseph is the man on whom we can rely.  约塞夫是我们可信赖的人。 (2)调尾句(Periodic Sentences)  (Loose) Do as you please, if you are not interested in what I advise.  (Periodic) If you are not interested in what I advise, do as you please.  如果你对我的忠告不感兴趣,随你便吧!  (Loose) He never seemed quite the same after he returned from his trip to Europe last year.  (Periodic) After he returued from his trip to Europe last year, he never seemed quite the same.  自他去年从欧洲旅行回来之后,他似乎大不相同了。 (3)层次渐进法(Order of Climax)  (Unemphatic) During his twenties he served as secretary of a big company, as president, and as vice-president.  (Improved) During his twenties he served as secretary of a big company,as vice presdent, and as president  在他廿几岁的时候就做了一家大公司的秘书,副董事长,与董事长。  (Unemphatic) He testified that he had attended high school, grammar school, and college.  (Improved) He testified that he had attended gram mar school, high school and college.  他证实他曾上过小学,中学,与大学。 (4)重复用字以加强语势 (Repetition of Words)  (Weak) They were never friendly they are not now amicable, and they will never be cordial.  (Emphatic) They were never firendly, they are not now friendly, and they will never be friendly.  他们过去不友善,现在也不友善,将来亦不会友善。  (Weak) We gazed out upon a wet world: the trees were damp;     the streets were moist; the roof tops were rain-soaked;     the pedestrians were dripping.  (Emphatic) We gazed out upon a wet world: the trees were wet;       the streets were wet; the roofs were wet; the pedestrians were wet.  我们凝视着外面那湿泞泞的世界:树木湿湿的;  街道湿湿的;屋顶湿湿的;步行的人们湿湿的。 (5)字词应求变化(Elements of Variation)  (Weak) They believe that most of us believe they are delightful.  (Better) They believe that most of us consider them deliahtful.  他们相信我们大部分的人都认为他们是高兴的。 (6)倒置句式(Inversion)  (Normal Order) I have never seen anything like that in my life.  (Emphatic) Never in my life have I seen anything like that.  在我的一生中从未见过像那样的事。  (Weak) One can achieve success only by industrious effort.  (Better) Only by industrious effort can one achieve success.  一个人只要拼命用功,必能有成。  (Weak) He never spoke about his own merits.  (Emphatic) Never did he speak about his own merits.  他从来不说他自己的长处。  (Weak) He is seldom at home in the afternoon.  (Better) Seldom is he at home in the afternoon.  他下午很少在家。  (Weak) However homely it may be, home is home.  (Emphatic) Home is home, be it ever so homely.  家毕竟是家,不管家多么丑陋。
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:10:06 16楼
    基础修辞之5 避免句构犯错(Sentence Errors to Be Avoided) (1)不合理的附属子句(Illogical Dependent Clauses)  错Harriet was trembling with excitement. As it was her first airplane ride.  对As it was her first airplane ride, Harriet was trembling with excitement.  因为这是她第一次坐飞机,赫丽叶特兴奋得发抖。  错My father’s name is Martin and has been a life-long resident here.  对My father’s name is Martin and he has been a life-long resident here.  我的父亲的名字叫马丁,他一生都住在此地。 (2)不完整的句子(The Fragment)  错As he comes in each morning, glancing keenly   about at the clerk in the out office.   对As he comes in each morning, glancing keenly   about at the clerk in the out office. he struts like a turkey-cock.  当他每天早晨进入大办公室的时候,以锐利的眼光对职员扫射一遍,而从像雄火鸡那样踱着大步。 (3)逗点造成语意割裂的错误(The Comma Splice)  错He left early, he said he had a toothache.  对He left early. He said he had a toothache.  他离开得很早,他说他牙齿痛。  错We find we save money living in the country,moreover, we like the country life.  对We find we save money living in the country;moreover, we like the country life.  我们发见住在乡下省钱;尤其,我们喜欢乡下生活。 附注: (1)否定副词起头的句子可以用倒置句法(Inversion) ,但不倒置亦可。倒置句法主要的目的是在加强语势(Emphasis)。此句可不倒置为:We had scarcely gone on shore when the hurricane began to blow. (2)此句可以用倒置句法:No sooner has the day broken than he gels up to study.
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:10:22 17楼
    语文特性   一个国家的语文因其历史渊源及民族特性而有异,不管就文字、句型、习惯用法等,在翻译上想要达到完全表达的对译几乎是难以办到的事,有许多根本是译不出来的地方,如果勉强译出来必然闹笑话。在这种情形意译能表达其原意八九分已算勉为其难达到翻译的功能,因为在这种情形之下如果弃而不译,翻译的功能岂不尽失。这里要讨论的就是极难译出的具有中国语文特性的文字或语句。 一、形象名词的探讨   中文里有许多富有想象力的形象语汇,可以说是不能用英文直译出来的。例如『一团和气』的『团』字如果译成英文" one lump harmonious spirit’颇为荒谬,尤其,其中"lump’,一字更为荒唐。此语是说大家『相处和睦』"living in har-mony"或者是说大家『感情融洽』"harmonizing in feeling" 之意。注意以下各片语带有引号的字是不能直译的,只能意译,也有的不必勉强译出。 1. 一『弯』溪水streaming in winding 2. 一『钩』新月a crescent or a crescent moon 3. 一『棵』小草a new blade or grass 4. 一『股』勇气to be sudden in courage 5. 一『场』美梦a waking dream 6. 一『门』亲事engagement or marriage 7. 一『叶』扁舟an open boat 二、代名词与代动词   英文中多用代名词来代替前面提及的名词,以避免重复;同样的,用代动词来代替前面用到的动词,以避免重复。这种情形在中文就宁可重复使用前面已提经及的或用到过的文字,以使表达更为清楚流畅。还有英文代名词"it"一字,在翻译时决不可随便译为『它』。例如说:"Beat it"不可以译为『打它』。此语乃一习语,意即『滚开!』诸如此类用"it"组成的习语很多,不可轻意把"it"’译为『它』。以下所举各例特别注意斜体的字。 1. I didn’t see Joseph,but my sister did. (did=saw him=saw Joseph) 我没有见到约塞夫,但是我妹妹见到了他。 2. Everything has its own life just as a man has his own. 每样事物都有其自己的生命,正如人有其自己的生命一样。   诸如下列习语或俗语中的 "it"不能译为『它』:   fight it out 打到底   blow it 混蛋   catch it 认命   lord it over 逞威风   Hook it! 逃呀!   Go it while you are young. 少壮当努力!   cab it 坐车去   foot it 走路去   In a lilac sunglasses she was it. 戴上紫色太阳镜她美极了 三、无从对译灼双关语(pun),同音义异字(homonym),廻文诗文(palindrome)等,绝不可勉强译出。此类文字如用解释法译出则失去原文简洁有力的暗示作用或讽刺意趣,诚 如严又陵曰:『顾信矣不达,译犹未译也』兹就这类文字列举数例于后: 1. 双关语与同音异义字:   双关语与同音异义字都是发音相同而意义不同的文字所组成的语言,往往不会只有一个意义,都是两个意义以上,常无从以另一种语言来代替,故不可勉强译出。如用解释法译出,也会使得译文远不如原文之意趣。例如,在中国俗语中常听到的一句话:『外甥打灯笼照舅。』其中『照舅』二字意谓[照旧』,即照原来样子而没有改变之意趣。如将此俗语译为:"The nephew-in-law took a paper lantern to lead the way for his uncle-in-law."这样的译文不仅未能译出原文的意趣,而且根本就有点不伦不类。如果用解释法译为:"All the things are unchanged;nothing better,nothing worse.",这样的译文虽接近原文的意思,但尽失原文刻意造成的语言趣味。   又如英美男士常喜欢对其很熟悉的女士开玩笑说"Oh,you look like a queen today!"此语"queen",一字另有一同音而拼法不同的字,即"quean"乃荡妇之意。当讲这句话时,乃是在讽刺对方今天衣着或体态俨然一荡妇也,意即不高贵。当对方无疑有他,而以为是在夸讲她有女王般高贵时,如将讽意之"quean"一字拼给她听,必然使之激怒或羞报无以言对,而达成语言上开玩笑的意趣。 2. 廻文诗文   廻文诗文乃是一种游戏诗文,旨在增加语言特性的表现美,尤其中国文字乃是方块文宇(character) ,如拼成图形,更是无法翻译。英文里的廻文句是自两端向中央对称的,即是以此一句的中央一个字母为中心向左向右均有相同的几个字母组成一个完整的句子。例如"Able was I ere I saw Elba."一语以r为中心点,向左向右各有相同的九个字母。又如"Was it a cat I saw?’,一语以c为中心点,向左向右各有相同的六个字母。像这类的句子虽然可以直译为中文,但译成中文后必然是未能表达原句的语言意趣,可谓索然寡味。
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