翻译的理论

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引 言   翻译是一种艺术,有如演员表演,非背诵台词了事。表演者先得用心研究剧本的内容,而后动作要逼真,表情要感人,饰女王就得象个女王,饰荡妇就得象个荡妇。翻译家也是要做到这样成功的表现,才能达到艺术的水准。艺术之所以为艺术在“美”。“美”的概念按意大利美学家克洛齐所说:“成功的表现就是‘美’。一件成功的翻译作品,它的艺术价值不在创作之下。并且,对同一作品的内容而言,翻译者与作者在心理状态上是一致的,而就文字运用技巧来说,创作者是以准确的文字,将个人独特的思想,幻想或概念做有效的表达,而翻译者也是以准确的文字来做有效的表达,且必须成功地表达原文本意,所以二者的困难都在文字的运用技巧,有时翻译者因为两国语文上根本的差异,在拣剔字句上比创作者所遇到的困难更大。谈到心理状态的一致,翻译者就更为困难了。当一为诗人听到阳光在唱歌,或看见风在作画,而创作一首诗的时候,不管隔了多久,当后来的翻译者再翻译这首诗时,必定也是全神贯注,象那位诗人一样,听到了阳光的歌声,或看到了风的彩画。唯有这样的翻译者才能成功地表现创作者的艺术美感。”      侯官严又陵氏说:“译事三难:信、达、雅;求其信已大难矣!顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也。”信的意思是说,译文对于原文的意思无所增减变易。达,是说译者能使读者像他自己一样了解原文的本意。雅,是说译文要具有文学上的艺术美感。重复这几句话说明了一件成功的翻译作品,委实得之不易。      本课程集英语系专家二十多年的讲授翻译、作文和修辞学等课程的丰富经验而成。 (1) 辨别歧义 (2) 标点功能 (3) 传声绘意 (4) 词意畅达 (5) 典译三式 (6) 拣剔字句 (7) 简明平易 (8) 句式研究 (9) 译注问题 (10) 语文特性 辨别歧义   辨别歧义是翻译求信实最重要的事,望文生义,难免有错。同一个字在不同的文句中不仅是意义不同,且有相反者,故文字重推敲,以达正确。例如诗经’瞻仰’篇云:’妇有长舌,惟厉之阶。’此厉字为不幸或是非之意,该诗句可意译为        Her long tongue’s like a flight of stairs,        Which leads to miserable cares. 而’垂带而厉’一语中之厉字为雅致之意,该句可译为:They hang girdles elegantly down.又’厉声而言’一语中之厉字则为粗意,该句可译为:He speaks in harsh tone of voice.俗语’苦船’乃晕船之意,例如说,某女士容易犯苦船之病,可英译为:She is a bad sailor.或译为:She is always sick on board.曹操’短歌行’云: ’对酒当歌,人生几何?譬如朝露,去日苦多。 ’这首诗最后一句那个苦字,翻译起来是颇费思考的,兹录曼殊上人’三昧集’中此诗之英译如下:         Here is wine, let’s sing;         For man’s life is short,         Like the morning dew,         It’s best days gone by. 诗经’蓼莪’篇云:’父兮生我,母兮鞠我。’此二句可译为:"Father begot me;/Mother reared me."但在英文中各种动物生产小动物均有其各别不同的动词,不像中文用一’生’字可通用。英文中’生小牛’为"calve";’生小猪’为"farrow";’生小羊’为"yeah",且此类用字不能相混,否则,必闹笑话。   关于望文生义而误解字词的情形,多发生在疏忽习语,俗语,和典故的原意,翻译时如遇没有把握的字词应多查阅字典。例如:"What a yellow dog!"此句中之yellow dog意指流氓或无赖,并非黄狗。又如:"a white elephant"意指某人大而无用,并非白象。又如He got a green bonnet after his marriage.’’此句中的"a green bonnet"意指一败涂地或一筹莫展,并非绿帽子。此句如译为:’他婚后戴上了绿帽子。’岂不笑话。   再者,在辨别歧义时应注意如果直译不近情理的字词,则应采意译。下面这段文字是写孔子究竟是怎样的一个人,如果将斜体的字直译,定不妥当,而意译则近情理。   He was too moral, to be moralistic, too pure to be puritanic, too broadly human to be all-too-human, too consistently moderate to be immoderate even in the virtue of moderateness.                --The Real Confucius   (有至德之人,不务繁文;纯洁的人,不拘小节;有人情味的人,近情理而不苟同;讲求中庸之道的人,作事不过火,亦不会不尽力。)   我国文字同一字可作名词或形容词,亦可作动词,在文言文此类情形更多,换句话说,同词异类,而无词类变化,译成英文则应注意词类之不同。例如老子’道德经’第七十三章:   夫唯病病,是以不病;圣人不病,以其病病,是以不病。 此处之’病病’前后二字虽同,而词类异。英国汉学家James Legge将前一病字译为形容词片语sick of(有忧虑之意) ,而把后一病字译为名词片语your sickness(有过错或缺点之意),尚称恰当。今将其译文录于后,以作参考:   Only when you are sick of your sickness will you cease to be sick. The sage is never sick, because he is sick of his sickness. This is why he is not sick.   另外须一提的是,同词类的转借语,亦应特别注意。例如韦庄’菩萨蛮’诗句: ’人人尽说江南好,游客只令江南老。’此处’令’字andlin英译为"stay in"颇为恰当。兹将他这两句的译文录于后,以作参考:      All men speak      Well of the South.      Travelers all      Stay in the South,      Till they are aged.          --Candlin, "The Herald Wind", P.33   有些习语或俗语必须查文学术语辞典,不可因一般字典上查不到则按上下文意去猜,那样颇为不妥。作家所用字汇除了像杰姆斯•乔易士(8),因需要而创字外,通常都是有所根据的,只要耐心查考,必可查出,切勿望文生义而译成不近情理的文意。例如费兹杰罗(9),’大亭小传’中有一句:   On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along-shore, the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.               --F. Lq. Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"   (礼拜天的早晨,当

引 言   翻译是一种艺术,有如演员表演,非背诵台词了事。表演者先得用心研究剧本的内容,而后动作要逼真,表情要感人,饰女王就得象个女王,饰荡妇就得象个荡妇。翻译家也是要做到这样成功的表现,才能达到艺术的水准。艺术之所以为艺术在“美”。“美”的概念按意大利美学家克洛齐所说:“成功的表现就是‘美’。一件成功的翻译作品,它的艺术价值不在创作之下。并且,对同一作品的内容而言,翻译者与作者在心理状态上是一致的,而就文字运用技巧来说,创作者是以准确的文字,将个人独特的思想,幻想或概念做有效的表达,而翻译者也是以准确的文字来做有效的表达,且必须成功地表达原文本意,所以二者的困难都在文字的运用技巧,有时翻译者因为两国语文上根本的差异,在拣剔字句上比创作者所遇到的困难更大。谈到心理状态的一致,翻译者就更为困难了。当一为诗人听到阳光在唱歌,或看见风在作画,而创作一首诗的时候,不管隔了多久,当后来的翻译者再翻译这首诗时,必定也是全神贯注,象那位诗人一样,听到了阳光的歌声,或看到了风的彩画。唯有这样的翻译者才能成功地表现创作者的艺术美感。”      侯官严又陵氏说:“译事三难:信、达、雅;求其信已大难矣!顾信矣不达,虽译犹不译也。”信的意思是说,译文对于原文的意思无所增减变易。达,是说译者能使读者像他自己一样了解原文的本意。雅,是说译文要具有文学上的艺术美感。重复这几句话说明了一件成功的翻译作品,委实得之不易。      本课程集英语系专家二十多年的讲授翻译、作文和修辞学等课程的丰富经验而成。 (1) 辨别歧义 (2) 标点功能 (3) 传声绘意 (4) 词意畅达 (5) 典译三式 (6) 拣剔字句 (7) 简明平易 (8) 句式研究 (9) 译注问题 (10) 语文特性 辨别歧义   辨别歧义是翻译求信实最重要的事,望文生义,难免有错。同一个字在不同的文句中不仅是意义不同,且有相反者,故文字重推敲,以达正确。例如诗经’瞻仰’篇云:’妇有长舌,惟厉之阶。’此厉字为不幸或是非之意,该诗句可意译为        Her long tongue’s like a flight of stairs,        Which leads to miserable cares. 而’垂带而厉’一语中之厉字为雅致之意,该句可译为:They hang girdles elegantly down.又’厉声而言’一语中之厉字则为粗意,该句可译为:He speaks in harsh tone of voice.俗语’苦船’乃晕船之意,例如说,某女士容易犯苦船之病,可英译为:She is a bad sailor.或译为:She is always sick on board.曹操’短歌行’云: ’对酒当歌,人生几何?譬如朝露,去日苦多。 ’这首诗最后一句那个苦字,翻译起来是颇费思考的,兹录曼殊上人’三昧集’中此诗之英译如下:         Here is wine, let’s sing;         For man’s life is short,         Like the morning dew,         It’s best days gone by. 诗经’蓼莪’篇云:’父兮生我,母兮鞠我。’此二句可译为:"Father begot me;/Mother reared me."但在英文中各种动物生产小动物均有其各别不同的动词,不像中文用一’生’字可通用。英文中’生小牛’为"calve";’生小猪’为"farrow";’生小羊’为"yeah",且此类用字不能相混,否则,必闹笑话。   关于望文生义而误解字词的情形,多发生在疏忽习语,俗语,和典故的原意,翻译时如遇没有把握的字词应多查阅字典。例如:"What a yellow dog!"此句中之yellow dog意指流氓或无赖,并非黄狗。又如:"a white elephant"意指某人大而无用,并非白象。又如He got a green bonnet after his marriage.’’此句中的"a green bonnet"意指一败涂地或一筹莫展,并非绿帽子。此句如译为:’他婚后戴上了绿帽子。’岂不笑话。   再者,在辨别歧义时应注意如果直译不近情理的字词,则应采意译。下面这段文字是写孔子究竟是怎样的一个人,如果将斜体的字直译,定不妥当,而意译则近情理。   He was too moral, to be moralistic, too pure to be puritanic, too broadly human to be all-too-human, too consistently moderate to be immoderate even in the virtue of moderateness.                --The Real Confucius   (有至德之人,不务繁文;纯洁的人,不拘小节;有人情味的人,近情理而不苟同;讲求中庸之道的人,作事不过火,亦不会不尽力。)   我国文字同一字可作名词或形容词,亦可作动词,在文言文此类情形更多,换句话说,同词异类,而无词类变化,译成英文则应注意词类之不同。例如老子’道德经’第七十三章:   夫唯病病,是以不病;圣人不病,以其病病,是以不病。 此处之’病病’前后二字虽同,而词类异。英国汉学家James Legge将前一病字译为形容词片语sick of(有忧虑之意) ,而把后一病字译为名词片语your sickness(有过错或缺点之意),尚称恰当。今将其译文录于后,以作参考:   Only when you are sick of your sickness will you cease to be sick. The sage is never sick, because he is sick of his sickness. This is why he is not sick.   另外须一提的是,同词类的转借语,亦应特别注意。例如韦庄’菩萨蛮’诗句: ’人人尽说江南好,游客只令江南老。’此处’令’字andlin英译为"stay in"颇为恰当。兹将他这两句的译文录于后,以作参考:      All men speak      Well of the South.      Travelers all      Stay in the South,      Till they are aged.          --Candlin, "The Herald Wind", P.33   有些习语或俗语必须查文学术语辞典,不可因一般字典上查不到则按上下文意去猜,那样颇为不妥。作家所用字汇除了像杰姆斯•乔易士(8),因需要而创字外,通常都是有所根据的,只要耐心查考,必可查出,切勿望文生义而译成不近情理的文意。例如费兹杰罗(9),’大亭小传’中有一句:   On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages along-shore, the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby’s house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.               --F. Lq. Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"   (礼拜天的早晨,当教堂钟声在沿岸村落响起,男男女女回盖兹此家来,在他家草地上,欢欣鼓舞地闪来闪去。)句中"the world and its mistress"一片语,意指’男男女女’,如直译文字表面含义或其他文意,均属不妥。   关于我国语文文言虚字甚多,不易翻译。如遇惊叹意义之虚字不难译出,例如’子兮,子兮!’ (语体文意:’天呀,天呀!’)可英译为:"Oh dear,oh dear!"但是大部份的虚字不可勉强译出。我国语文的连接词亦然,例如: ’子于是日哭,则不歌。’其中连接词’则’字,整句英译后便隐没于句构中, "On a day on which Confucius had been weeping, he did not sing."此乃英文句构与中文句构不同之处。 辨别歧义 错误!嵌入对象无效。

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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:02:14 2楼
    标点功能   在翻译的时候,应注意中英文的标点运用有所不同之处。例如说,中文的句点是一个小圆圈,而英文的句点却是一个实心点,不可用有空心的小圆圈。又有许多的中文复句并不像英文那样要用连接词。英文两个单句相连用是不能用逗点来代替连接词的,但中文却可以用逗点来分开连续的几个单句。总之,英文句构就得按英文的法则束写,不可以用中文的造句法与标点来交相运用,以致造成混乱,而使语意不清或错误。下面提出数例,以作参考。 一、 用逗点(comma)分开两个独立子句的错误:   错 :It is nearly a quarter to six, we cannot reach the rendezvous before dark.   对:It is nearly a quarter to six, and we cannot reach the rendezvous before dark.   快六点差十五分了,我们不可能在天黑之前到达集合地点。 二、英文句点不能分割两个密切关系的子句或二部份为二:   错:We hardly escape from Nature’s tyranny. Such as hurricanes and typhoons.   对:We hardly escape from Nature’s tyranny, such as hurricanes and typhoons.   我们几乎无法逃过命运的迫害,诸如飓风与台风。 三、限制用的英文片语,其前均不能使用逗点:   错:The building, across the street, is the municipal hospital.   对:The building across the street is the municipal hospital.   街道对面的那栋大厦是市立医院。 四、分号(semicolon)可以代替对等连接词连接两个独立子句。又二独立子句太长时,即使已使用对等连接词如and,but,or,nor等,其前仍可使用分号:   对:Part of the balance was settled in June; the rest will be settled in December.     部份差额已于六月结算,所剩部份将于十二月结帐。   对:The upper zone of the river has an area of 265 square miles acquired by us with a view to control over a strip of land twenty miles wide; and acquisition of territory, though small, has proved to be of the ultmost importance.     为控制二十里宽的一个狭长地区,我们已取得这条河上游地带二百六十五平方里的区域;并且这一领土的取得,虽然不大,却证实具有极大之重要性。 五、非限定用法的英文分词构文放在句首,其功用是代替附属子句,必需用逗点与主要子句分开,否则便造成限定用法的混乱,而使语意不清:   对:Being heard from a long distance, the whistle grew to be the evening breeze.     = As it whistles longer and goes farther, the whistling sounds like the eveing breeze.     汽笛的长鸣越去越远,听在耳朵里变成了一阵晚风。                 --川端康成: ’雪乡’ 传声绘意   在文学名著中有许多有关声音的用字实难翻译,要会意传神,觉得适当的同音字,而与原文符合者,是可可遇而不可求之绝妙佳作。由下列数例可窥声音翻译之一二窍秘: 一、音同义同:  ●老子’道德经’:   其政闷闷,   其民淳淳。   其政察察,   其民缺缺。   李德兰(吴经熊博士)曾将句中’闷闷’译为mum,mum ,而将’察察’译为sharp,sharp,可谓音义均同之巧合。今将其译文列于后,以作参考:   If a ruler is mum, mum;   The people are simple, simple.   If a ruler is sharp, sharp;   The people are wily, wily.       --Laotsu’s THE TAO AND THE VIRTUE,translated by Teresa Li<1>  ●诗经’丝丝瓜瓞,民之初生’   In long trains ever increasing grow the gourds,   When our people first sprang.   James Legge将此句中瓜瓞译焉gourds一字,义同音近,亦为巧合。  ●室内空荡荡;廊下风飕飕,魑魅鬼影,令人毛骨悚然。   How vast the hall is through the porch blats of   wind sough,sough;   Here and there appear malicious sprits and ghosts,   All the things horror-stricken in and out.   这是一段描写空屋恐怖的句子,译文中’荡荡’译为How vast,’飕飕’译为sough,sough,’魑魅’译为malicious spirits and ghosts, ’毛骨悚然’译为horror-stricken实为上乘的手法。(2)  ●北平民谣’羊巴巴蛋儿’ (参考’北平童谣选辑’陈子实编选)   羊巴巴蛋儿,   用脚撮,   你是弟来我是哥。   Goats’dung is crushed by the foot,You’re my young brother and I’m the elder.   此处’羊巴巴蛋儿’译为Goats’dung该说是巧合。
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:02:23 3楼
    二、绘声      绘声(Onomatopoeia) (3)是将各种声音作近似的直译,也几乎可以说就是音译。梁启超曾将philosophy (哲学)译为’发牢骚法’ ,又将inspiration (灵感)译为’烟丝比理纯’ ,实为音译之妙用。下面录下一些绘声的中英文对译词汇 ,以作参考: 1. 辚辚rumble 2. 沙沙rustle 3. 咯咯cuckle 4. 啷啷chirrup 5. 嗡嗡buzz 6. 嘶嘶fizz 7. 喋喋rattle 8. 叮当cling-dong 9. 萧萧sough-sough 10. 呷呷quack 11. 哈哈ha-ha 12. 拍拍biff 13. 好哇hurrah 14. 玎玲tinkling 15. 哗喇喇tan tara 16. 淅沥patter 17. 狮子吼roar 18. 驴嘶bray 19.猪嚎grunt 20.鸦叫声croak 21.喔喔啼cock-a-doodle-doo 22.呻吟groan 23.咆哮growl 24.轰轰grumble 25.轧轧creak 26.嘘hiss 27.咕咕coo-coo 28.猫头鹰叫whoop 29.雁叫honk 30.雷声boom 31.潺潺drizzles and drips 32.水激荡声lap 33.涟漪寂寂rupple 34.淙淙murmur 35.咕噜gurgle 36.哼哼hum 37.喃喃babble 38.呀呀学语gabble jabber (gibberish, quibble, gibber, prattle) 39.含混其词mutter 40.囫囵吞枣mumble 41.如怨如诉murmur 42.含哀呻吟moan 43.木讷於言stammer 44.热吻之声smack 45.感叹之声aha 46.吃吃而笑chuckle,titter 47.闷笑声giffle, snigger,snicker 48.嘻嘻he-bee 49.呱呱haw, mew 50.呜咽whimper 51.呜呜pule, sob 52,呦呦哭声hover 53.心跳鹿鹿pitapat 54.呜呼(噫)alas 55.咆哮snarl, howl, grow1 56.鸟鸣chatter 57.象叫trumpt 58.马嘶neigh, whinny 59.骡叫bray, hee-haw 60.牛叫 low, below, moo   牛low   唔哦below   哞moo 61.羊叫baa, bleat   哞baa,   哞bleat 62.汪汪(犬吠)bark bow-wow, yelp, whine 63.咪咪(猫叫)mew, pur, purr 64.咭咭(鼠叫)peep, grate, squeak 65.母鸡叫chuck,cluck, cackle 66.小鸡叫pip, peep, cheeep 67.火鸡叫gozzle 68.唼唼(鹅叫)goggle, hiss 69.鹤叫whoop 70.夜鹰叫jug, jug-jug 71.燕子呢喃twittering, chirping 72.吟吟(蛇叫)hiss 73.蛙叫croak 74.杜鹃叫cuckoo 75.*(蟋蟀叫)chirrup (mole-cricket) 76.蜜蜂、蚊子、苍蝇叫buzz, hum, drone 77.唼唼(鱼叫)nibber 78.钟表滴答声tick-tack 79.车马喧闹声tinkle 80.悄声低语whisper
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:02:41 4楼
    三、叠韵   叠韵(Riming Locution)(4)不像绘声那样作声音之仿制,只是将两个音韵相近的字重叠使用,使之产生描述情景的效果,并且十分传神写意,最能使原作的意境作完美的表达,兹录下列几节对译,以作参考:   马致远’黄梁梦’:      我这里稳丕丕土坑上迷影没腾的坐。那婆婆将粗剌剌陈米来喜收希和的播。那蹇驴儿柳荫下舒着足乞留恶滥的卧。那汉子去脖顶上婆娑没索的摸。你早则醒来了也么哥!你早则醒来了也么哥!正是窗前弹指时光过。   Muzzy, dizzy, lackadaisical, I’m squatting smug-       smugly on an earthen divan.   Clatter, patter, and the old p’op’o is shaking her       coarse-great-big grain-pan.   Lousy, slouchy lies the donkey under the willow, his       legs sprawling,   Lapping, patting that coolies hand on the donkey’s       neck is sprawing.   Oh, wake up a while!   Oh, wake up a while!   Time like a bullet past a window is flying!          --My Country and My people  ●诗经:’有斐君子,如切如磋,如琢如磨。’   They lead my thoughts to our Duke Wu;-     of winning grace is he!   As knife and file make smooth the bone,   As jad by chisel wrought and stone,     is stamp upon him set.          --Translated by James Legge  ●魏文帝’短歌行’:   呦呦游鹿,衔草鸣麂;   翩翩飞鸟,挟子曹棣   "Yu, Yu"/ cry the wandering deer   As they carry fodder/ to their young in the wood.   Flap, flap/ fly the birds   As they carry their little ones/ back to the nest.           --Waley, "170 Chinese Poems"  ●诗经’静女’   爱而不见,搔首踟蹰。   How she missed me when I failed to show up in time !   Scratching her head, she lingered yearningly.           --吴经熊译 "50 Poems from the Chinese" 双声叠韵词汇] 1. 亲友kith and kin 2. 聊聊chit-chat 3. 铿锵ching-chang 4.劈历拍剌flip-flap 5.乒乓ping-pang 6. 矍铄hale and hearty 7. 现金购物自行运送cash and carry 8. 焦急忿怒fret and fume 9. 流氓地痞riff-raft 10.跷跷板see-saw 11.古式双陆棋trick-track 12.玩玩儿nick-nack 13.一报还一报tit for tat 14.猛烈hot and heavy 15.变化无常chop and change 16,吞吞吐吐hum and ha(w) 17.拖泥带水slipslop 18.顶呱呱tip top 19.摇动信号wigwag 20.曲曲折折zigzag 21.狼藉stroke and strife 22.沉著稳健slow and sure 23.稳稳当当slow and steady 24.七颠八倒topsy-turvy 25.匆匆忙忙helter-skelter 26.劳劳碌碌toil and moil 27.鸣鸣boo-hoo 28.汪汪bow-wow 29.闲谈tittle-tattle 30.冬冬rub-a-dub 31.消耗wear and tear 32.装鬼脸mop and mow 33.矮胖子humpty-dumpty 34.河东狮kicky-wicky 35.乱七八糟pell-mell 36.吵吵闹闹hurly-burly 37.仓皇失措hurry-scurry 38.光明磊落fair and square 39.沸腾之声hubble-babble 40.砰砰rat-a-tat 41.水泄不通chock-a-block 43.东骗西瞒razzle-dazzle 45.好管闲事pok and pry 46.非驴非马neither fish nor flesh 47.亲亲密密near and dear 48.亲人儿lovey-dovey 49.小妹子popsy-wopsy 50.夹杂儿hotch-potch 51.广东杂碎chop-suey 52.吵闹不休hubbub 53.车辚辚rumble-tumble 54.珍品titbit 55.一塌糊涂higgledy-piggledy 56.神气活现hoity-toity 57.讲究细节miming-piming 58.绮丽轻佻nanby-pamby 59.迟疑不决willy-nilly 60.平平tol-tol 61.共饮bobnob 62.频频点头niddle-noddle 63.怕老婆hen-pecked 64.小题大做make a mountain out of a mole-hill 65.竭尽全力with might and main 66.一视同仁fair field and no favour 67.权威之士man of light and leading
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:02:54 5楼
    词意畅达   为求词意畅达,文字宜活用活译;不可呆呆板板照字典之解释,或拘泥于文法的规则。如人类先有语言,后有字词之解释及文法之规则。字典及文法旨在解释既有的字词语构,而作家们常有独创性的字词及语法,绝非一二定义或几则条文可以解释的,此时,必探索原作者心中的意思,清楚地予以表达出来。下列各例中划线之字词非文字与文法可以为功也。   Joseph habitually scowled at furniture, expecting it to be impertinent, mischievous, or dusty.            --J. Steinbeck, "The Moon Is Down"   此句中expecting并非regarding as likely to happen or arrive或looking for as due之意,若译为’因为……’又未免忽略主词的主观性,意译为’总认为……’或’总是……’。"it",一字虽指furniture,在英文为单数代名词,而译成中文则必为复数代名词,此即不能拘泥于英文文法之概念。这一句摘自史坦贝克(10)著’月亮下去了’(电影片名译为’月落乌啼霜满天’)下面录自鄙人中译本(大林出版社版本) ,以作参考:   约塞夫常常不高兴这些家具,总认为它们是不顺眼,为他添麻烦,并且多灰尘。   又如must这个助动词的翻译,最容易译成’必须’或’必定’之错误,犯这样的错误多半是太拘泥於文法书上所讲的概念。例如"James must invite me to dinner just when I have had a date with Henry. "按上下文意,此句中的must有’不巧’或’偏偏要’的意思。全句应译为’当我与亨利刚已有约,偏偏杰姆斯要请我晚餐。’   又如"My hands are tied."一句,如不假思考译为’我的手被绑起来了。’有的时候也许是真的被绑起来了,但是,这是句常讲的俗语,意思是’爱莫能助’或’心余力绌’。   有许多中文片语不能直译,如’三番五次’译为"three or five times"则不妥,可译为"again and again"或"repeatedly"之类的副词片语或单字。   又有许多英文片语,因有其习俗来源或故事背景,如拘泥文字表面意义直译出来则不妥,为求畅达最好亦以含意较广的中文成语译出,兹举部份例子以作参考:   at a snails pace           慢条斯理   to play the goat           装疯卖傻   Joe’s crackpot scheme        纸上谈兵   to be an apple of Sodom       外强中干   to abet an ill-doer         助桀为虐   the thrust and parry of A and B   唇枪舌剑   a tale of tub            无稽之谈   to cast pearls before swine     对牛谈琴   idols of the cave          井底之蛙   to eat crow             胯下之辱   born ye sterday           乳臭未干   this mor tal coil          人世纷扰   to let slip the dogs of war     惹事生非   green old age            老当益壮
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:03:19 6楼
    典译三式   典(Literary allusions)之可贵在言简意赅,辞约义丰;语毕而意未穷,有暗示之功,其妙尽在不言中。如果卖弄渊博,强用欠妥者,反遭憎厌或令人捧腹。翻译时以典译典,故为妙用。然而典必有原来的故事为背景;俗谚亦有其历史渊源,如遇二者不能吻合的情形时,当用直译或解释。 一、以典译典:   下列各例的中英文均有其故事背景,用典既以背景为重,翻译时当查考其出处,以求妥帖。  1.史记:皆沉船,破釜甑。   Caesar the Great dices and crosses the Rubicon.项羽破釜沉舟,Caesar渡过义大利中部一河the Rubicon而毁船,决心与掌握罗马政府大权之Pompey一决雌雄,二人决心死战,其情其志全同,故以典译典堪称妙用。(1)  2.Don’t be tempted by a mess of pottage.   语出旧约创世纪以扫为了吃一点饼和一点红豆汤,而出卖了自己做个长子的名份,以致不能承继祖产,此与我国俗言’为小失大’一语的意思相合。  3.孟子’犹缘木而求鱼也。’   孟子此语言劳而无功,如直译like seeking a fish from a tree.(Giles)似未达意。如借用新约马太福音第七章第十六节’蒺藜里岂能摘无花果呢?’ (Ye shall know them[false prophets]by their fruits.Do men gather grapes of thorns,or figs from thistles?)的句子,则较为妥帖。  4.易系辞:天下殊途而同归。   意谓走的路虽然不同,目的却是一样。 J. A.Thomson的’科学导论’中有这样一句:All roads lead to Rome.正是’殊途同归’之意。 二、解释:   当一个典故不能找到相同的故事背景时,可用’解释’来传达原意。此方法虽须较长的句构来表达,然而以表达清楚为原则,无法强求如同原句之简约。  1.阳春白雪:本古歌曲名,喻高妙的歌曲,自然曲高而和寡。[宋玉文]其为阳春之雪,国中属而和者,不过数十人。如直译为Spring-time and white snow定然使人读了不知所云,故可解释为(Names of)melodies of highest musical quality ;excellence above popular comprehension 则可表达原意。  2.河东狮吼:喻太太发威,丈夫惧内。苏轼诗’忽闻河东狮子吼,柱杖落地心惘然’。此典可用比拟法解释之:A hen-pecked husband or a kicky-wicky wife.  3.Certainly to have no axe to grind is something very noble and very race.--L,Strachey   此语可解释为’果尔别无用心,则难能可贵。’ 三、直译:   含有典故之句子具有多重意义者,以典译典或解释的方法均显得偏窄时,不如直译之,以保存其多重之含义。唯直译之文字使人读后完全不知所云时,则此法不宜用,例如:to out-Herod Herod有多重意义,直译为’此希罗德还要希罗德』,如此译文译犹未译也。如解释为:①行家之行家;②变本加厉;③以其道还其身;或典译为’青出于蓝’则较为清楚。然而P.B.Shelley的’西风赋’中"If winter comes,can Spring be far behind’,一诗句直译为’冬天来了,春天还会太远吗?’确实远甚过’山穷水尽疑无路,柳暗花明又一村。’或’否极泰来,机运可待。’等典译较能保持原诗句之多重意义。又如Achilles’,heel为盖世英雄Achilles之致命弱点(a vulnerable point) ,如直译为’亚克里斯的脚后跟’,不知其故事的读者必不知如是脚后跟乃英雄之却数(2)。有些哲理之经典常因解释起来棘手,不如直译以保留其多重意义。如老子道德经第二十八章’知其雄,守其雌,为天下溪’。 James Legge直译如下,颇为得体:Who knows his manhood’s strength, /Yet still his female feebleness maintains; /As to one channel flow the many drains, /All come to him, yea, all beneath the sky.
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:03:28 7楼
    四、典译选粹(3) 1. 近朱者赤;近墨者黑。John’s friends like John; Jack’s friends like Jack. 2. 物以类聚Birds of a feather flock together. 3. 有其父必有其子。Like father, like son. 4. 自力更生to paddle one’s own canoe 5. 互相标榜to roll each other’s log 6. 以牙还牙①measure for measure;②a tooth for a tooth;③to give tit for tat 7. 反覆无常to blow hot and cold 8. 异想天开to cry for the moon 9. 安份守己to draw the line 10. 反败为胜to stage a comeback 11. 仅以身免near thing 12. 动人心弦to touch a string 13. 不择手段by hook or by crook 14. 到此为止to call it a day 15. 以饱私囊to feather one’s nest 16. 五分钟热度to flash in the pan 17. 防患末然to nip in thc bud 18. 幕后操纵to pull the strings 19. 向父母请安to pass the time of day 20. 三句不离本行to talk shop 21. 道听涂说by the grapevine 22. 囤积居奇to corner something on the market 23. 尽地主之谊to do the honors 24. 滥揽权势many irons in the fire 25. 置之高阁to kick one upstairs 26. 为小失大penny wise and pound foolish 27. 渐入佳境Something is picking up. 28. 半斤八两It’s six of one and half a dozen of the other. 29. 怒发冲冠to blow one’s top 30. 逆来顺受to make the best of a bad job 31. 青出于蓝① a chip off the old block;② to out Herod Herod 32. 不速之客to crash the gate 33. 装模作样to be crazy like a fox 34. 万商云集to do a land-office business 35. 聊胜于无to do in a pinch 36. 愁眉苦脸 to be down in the dumps 37. 自惭形秽 to feel like two cents 38.人地生疏 to fish out of water 39.全权处理to give one a free hand with something 40.生气勃勃 to be full of beans 41.临阵退缩 to get cold feet 42.言归正传 to get down to brass tacks 43.先发制人 to get the jump on someone 44.画蛇添足 to gild the lily 45.长袖善舞to give everyone the glad hand 46.虽败犹荣to go down with flying colors 47.贯彻始终to go the whole hog 48.木已成舟One’s goose has been cooked already. 49.一窍不通Something is Greek to someone. 50.含辛茹苦to grit one’s teeth 51.墨守成规Someone is in a rut. 52.同病相怜 to be in the same boat 53.博而不精 Jack-of-all-trades 54.弄巧成拙to jump out of the frying pan into the fire 55.若即若离to keep someone at the arm’s length 56.返老还童to kick up one’s heels 57.当众出丑to make a scene about something 58.未雨绸穋① in fair weather to prepare for foul;②to make hay while the sun shine 59.中庸之道a middle-of-the-road policy 60.山穷水尽on one’s last legs 61.自我陶醉to pat oneself on the back 62.集思广益to put heads together 63.枉费唇舌to save one’s breath 64.未卜先知 to be gifted with second sight 65.洛阳纸贵to sell like hot cakes 66.逃之夭夭 to take to one’s heels 67.虚怀若谷to be a shrinking violet 68.大惊小怪 ① to make a fuss; ② a tempest in a teacup 69.信口雌黄to talk through one’s hat 70.同流合污to be hick as thieves 71.历尽沧桑through the mill 72.见风转舵to know how the land lies 73.缘木求鱼to be a wild goose chase 74.人面兽心to be a wolf in sheep’s clothing 75.知过惮改A fault confessed is half redressed. 76.患难知己A friend in need is a friend indeed. 77.一鸟在手胜于二鸟在林。A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 78.失之毫厘,差之千里。A miss is as good as a mile. 79.事实胜于雄辩Actions speak louder than words. 80.星火缭原A stitch in time saves nine. 81.少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。An idle youth, a needy age. 82.各得其所Every one to his taste. 83.棋逢敌手Diamond cut diamond. 84.过犹不及Extreme right is extreme wrong. 85.速而不达Haste makes waste. 86.以貌取人Handsome is that handsome does. 87.既往不咎Let bygone be bygones. 88.熟能主巧Practice makes perfect. 89.言行一致practice what you preach. 90.养不教,父之过;教不严,师之惰Spare the rod and you spoil the child. 91.逝者如斯Time and tide wait for no man. 92.以其人之道还其人之身。To pay a person back in his own coin. 93.小题大做To make a mountain out of a mole hill. 94.实事求是Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched. 95.朽木不可雕也You cannot teach an old dog new tricks. 96.倒行逆施to put the cart before the horse 97.留得青山在,不怕没柴烧。When there is life, there is hope. 98.易如反掌之事The assienment is a niece of cake. 99.正合孤意Picnic is my cup of tea. 100.好的开始就是成功的一半。Well begun is half done.
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:03:54 8楼
    拣剔字句   上乘的翻译作品必基于良好的文字功夫,换言之,写作的第一步也是必先熟谙字义的正确性与句构的精密组织,不流于平庸粗劣,懂得拣剔字句,而后方可谈文章的意境。   字句的拣剔着重用字正确,通畅的文字必合理,合文法,且为有教养的人士所通用,至于小说中故意运用市井小民粗鄙之言,如’妈的’ (fuck)之类的忌语(taboo) ,则为例外。又有些不合文法的字,如"I ain’t."及"It’s me."二语句中的ain’t及me均应避免使用。若ain’t为"am not"之俗语,亦为"is not", "has not","have not"之卑贱语。例如美国俗语"--,ain’t cha?"="--,aren’t you?"(是吗?或会吗?)又如美国卑贱语"Ain’t we got fun?"="Haven’t we got fun?"(不愉快吗?) "It’s me."应为"It’s I."美国俗语用me的地方很多,例如"Who is me."(呜呼哀哉!)"Me and you both"(关于这点我赞成你。)   其次,占体字在现代译文中亦应避免使用,诸如:methinks为"It seems to me.之古体; belike为perhaps之古体;saith为says之古体。有些文学佳作运用许多新创的字汇,例如美国英文中的"My brother!"(天呀!)"Cheap skate"(可怜虫)等语出现在美国小说作品中,传达美国语言的特别风味,翻译时却应注意。   关于字义的正确性,应特别小心,一字数义的情形,在翻译时重要的字都必须按上下文意细加推敲。例如all一字在句构中的功能就非常灵活,试举数语,以作参考:She is all smiles.(她一直在笑。)此句中之all 为’一直在……’之意。 But it is true for all that the news is bad.(消息虽不好,毕竟是真的。)此句中之all接for为’毕竟’之意。 With all his faults,he is a great man.(虽然他有缺点,仍不失为一个伟人 。)此句中之all接with组成一连接词片语,为’虽然’之意。又如article一字可作合同,冠词,文章,或货物等不同的字义解释,必须按上下文意才能确定。如He wrote articles for magazines.此句中之articles为文章,意谓’他曾为几家杂志写文章。’必不会误解为货物。而The articles will be unsalable.这句话如无别的上下文,句中的articles可能指货物,亦可能以讽意喻文章,如指货物则谓’该货滞销。’如指文章则谓文章买不出去。’其次,辨别字的词类亦甚重要,如He did not lock the door securely. (他没有把门锁好。)此句中的lock为动词,谓锁门的动作出了毛病。而The lock does not work securely.(门锁不牢。)此句中的lock为名词,谓锁的本身出了毛病。   再者,不管是创作或翻译,字词的拣选表现作者或译者的工作态度与作品水准。海明威在坎城习作阶段曾自择二个拣选字词的原则:   1. Never use old slangs. Such words as cut out, get his goat, come across, sit up and take notice, put one over, have no place after their use becomes common; slangs enjoyable must be fresh.    (绝对不用陈旧俗语,诸如停止,激怒,碰见,端坐,注意等俗语用得太滥而不可采用。活泼清新的俗语则可取。)   2.Avoid the use of adjectives, especially such extravagant ones as splendid, gorgeous, grand, magnificent, etc. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative.    (少用形容词,特别是像华丽的,五光十色的,宏大的,壮观的等浮夸的形容词应该避免。运用鲜明有力的字汇。要用正面的,积极的;不要用反面的,消极的。)   海明威所强调不可使用的是陈腔滥调(cliché)的词汇,然而,像no less than(不次于……不亚于……),as well as(如同,或以及) ,in addition to(其次,或以及),owing to(由于) ,thanks to(由于) ,as to(至于)等片语则是不可避免的常用语。这两个原则虽然是言写作的技巧,而翻译亦然。所谓"abest word in its best order"是指’用字恰当’,即是说,拣剔字句必具匠心,而译文之佳者又必出于自然之美,无斧凿之痕,而陈腐词汇有碍自然畅达之鲜明感,自应避用。
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:04:05 9楼
    简明平易   好的文章并非卖弄字汇与知识,能用字简明而准确表达作者想表达的东西,便是上乘之作,故翻译这种风格的文章,此翻译隐义的或象征的文字还要难,如后者可以注释补充说明,而前者意义已明显,不容添附赘言,译文必求与原文一样简明有力,这样的译文,不仅在达意,也是要将原文之风格表现出来。翻译这类文字应注意下列重点:   一、力的表现常有短句的对称或重叠。平衡对称的句法,在翻译时应顾到原文均匀的美感;字词的长短以及词类的配合都应注意。今将鄙人译胡适’读书’一段文字录下,以作参考:   专攻一技一艺的人,除此以外,一无所知,好比一根旗竿,怪觉孤单可怜。又有一些人广泛博览,而一无专长,虽可以到处受一班浅人的欢迎,其实也是一种废物。这一种人,好比一张很大的薄纸,禁不起风吹雨打。在社会上,这两种人,都没有什么大的影响,为个人计,也很少乐趣。              --胡适:’读书’   A man of artifice or profession, knowing nothing else but his own personal recommendation, is just like a flagpole in much of a feeling lonely and sad. Another man of erudition in a manner of Jack-of-all-trades or smattering, though being popular with some simple-minded persons everywhere, really a good-for-nothing, is fragile on a par with a flimsy sheet of paper put in gusts. Men of these two types will not be much of spelling social dynamism or seeking personal joys.                --Hu Shih, "Of Study"   英文中有许多短句的有力表达,如培根’谈读书’一文中有"Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man." (读书能使人充实;辩论能使人锐敏;写作能使人精细。)又如莎士比亚语: "A horse,a horse,my kingdom for a horse.’’ (愿以江山换美人。)又如"圣经"旧约出埃及记第二章第二十二节语:"I have been a stranger in a strange land.’’ (身在异乡作异客。)这样简短有力的句子,如不能以同样简短有力的中文译出,则无以传神。   二、文章风格的灵魂在平易中有深度。有一种文章,用字简明,并无隐义的词汇,虽是平铺直叙,而能写出极具深度的内容,这类文字最难翻译。下面洛曼氏这一段写一只铁环的文字,谓铁环会给予滚铁环者无穷的生命力,就是这类平易中有深度的文字,试译于下,以作参考:   When you have played a long time with a hoop, as Lovis Bastide had done, and you have had the luck to find one of which you are very fond, you come to realize that things are quite different from going out in the ordinary way. Try and run by yourself; you will be tired in a few minutes, with a hoop, you can keep tiredness at bay indefinitely. You feel as though you were holding on to something, almost as if you were being carried along. If you happen to feel tired for a moment, it seems as though the hoop imparted strength to you in a friendly kind of way.                 --Jules Romains, "Men of Good Will"   当你像巴斯泰德那样一直玩了很久的铁环,并且,你也有幸发觉,这也是你所喜爱的一种游戏,你便会明了,来自日常事物,而又能超脱日常方式的某些事情,其趣味是特别不同的。如果你单独一个人跑,不一会儿你就会疲倦。然而,如果你带着一只铁环跑,即使在你精疲力倦的时候,你仍会作困兽之闸的追逐。你会觉得你好像掌握了什么,又像是有件东西牵引着你往的跑。有时你似乎觉得疲倦了,那铁环似乎就会伸出友谊的援手,给予你一种力量,使你支持下去。                  --洛曼氏: ’善意者’   平易的文句中,也有重叠句法,来表现作者对某一观念的强调。重叠不妥的句子反是赘词,但运用得恰当,却成为平易而有力的语句。下面林肯这段言词便是极佳范例,翻译时亦应着重其重叠之语势:   If I could save the Union without freeing any slave,I would do it; and if I could do it by freeing all the slaves, I would do; and if I save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also that.                   --A. Lincoyn   如果我不解放黑奴能拯救联邦政府,我愿这样去做;如果我解放所有的黑奴能拯救联邦政府,我愿意这样去做;如果我解放一部份黑奴,而留下另外的,也能拯救联邦政府,我也愿意这样去做。 句式研究   英文中有许多句法,可以说整个的英文法都是在解释英文句构的组织与用法,而中文亦然。所以要了解全部的中英文句法,那就非完全了解中文及英文的全部文法及修辞学不可。在这里限于篇幅,仅将中英对译时常用的基本句式加以研讨。当然以’信 (accuracy)与’达’ (expressiveness)的两个翻译要件为主,而’惟’ (refinement)的境界另外再加以研讨。’雅’与修辞学有密切的关系,而高深的修辞是艺术境界,可以说是因作家而毕的独特成就,研究起来非常不易解说得清楚。基本修辞学(1)却又是精研句式的必修课题,所以在基本句式的例句研讨之后,亦补以基本修辞句法,以求句法之精进。 句式研究 基础句式之1 基础句式之2 基础句式之3 基础句式之4 基础句式之5 基础句式之6 基础句式之7 基础修辞之1 基础修辞之2 基础修辞之3 基础修辞之4 基础修辞之
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:04:48 10楼
    基础句式之1   1. 其一……,其二……。    There are requisites in translation;one is accuracy and the other,expressiveness.    翻译有二要件:其一是’信’,其二是’达’。   2. 前者……,后者……。    Accuracy and expressiveness are the two requisites in translation; the former is to express the exact thought of the original article and the latter is to make the version easily understood.    ’信’与’达’是翻译的二要件;前者是在表达原文的正确思想,而后者是在使得译文容易被人了解。   3. 对照句式    所谓对照句式就是用这种句式可以说明二物相比照的情形;即’什么之于什么正如什么之于什么’这样的一种句式。这种句式在日常用语或写作文句中都常用到。注意下面三个例句斜体字部份以及动词的位置。    (A) Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.      阅读之于头脑就像运动之于身体。    (B) What lungs are to the animal that is leaves to the plant.      肺之于动物正如叶之于植物。      As water is to fish so is air to man.      水之于鱼就像空气之于人。   4. ……无异于……    A student can no more obtain knowledge without studying than a farmer can get harvest without plowing.    学生不读书得不到知识,无异于农夫不耕种得不到收获。   5.我不……你也不……。    (A) I am not foolish just as you are not.    (B) I am not foolish; neither are you.    我不傻,你也不儍。 基础句式之2   6."no more…than…"与"not more…than…是完全相反的两个句式。"no more…than…有否定之意,而"not more…than…"却没有完全否定,甚至有加强肯定之意。请注意下面两句的中文译文。    (A) He is no more diligent than you are.      他跟你一样不用功。(意即他与你都是懒家伙。)    (B) He is not more diligent than you are.      他之用功不如你。(意即他与你都是勤奋的人。)   7. 原级比较法,肯定是用"as…as…"而否定则用"not so…as…"。虽然是一种简单的英文句式,在中译上却常常有出于意料的表达功能。    The harvest moon is as bright as a mirror.    中秋之月明如镜。   8. 比较级比较法是最普通的句式,但要注意人比人;物比物;事比事;不可混乱。注意下面的斜体字。    We made more efforts for African nations to win their independence than that of any other country.    我们为非洲国家赢得独立所做的努力甚过任何其他的国家。   9.不得不……(或)不能不……    We cannot but read books to increase our knowledge.    我们不能不读书以增进知识。   10.禁不住……    Seeing such an awkward action, I Cannot help laughing.    看到这样一个笨拙的动作,我禁不住笑了。
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  • wanxing_lila
    wanxing_lila 2007年02月25日 23:05:14 11楼
    11.无不……    There is no child but knows how to love his parents.    孩子无不懂得爱其父母。   12.自从……    It has been several years since I left you.    自从与你分别后又已数载。   13.不在……,而在……        The value of a man lies not so much in property as in character.    人之可贵不在财富,而在品格。        His success lies not in his knowledge but rather in his industriousness.    他之成功不在学问,而在勤奋。   14.太……而不……    He is lee old to work.    他太老了,不宜工作。   15.虽然……尚可……    He is only too old to work.    他虽然老了,尚可工作。 基础句式之3   16.太……以致于……    You are so young that you cannot understand such things.    你太年轻,以致于你不了解这样的事。   17.太……不致于不……    He is too wise not to solve this problem.    他太聪明了,不致于不能解答这个问题。    He is so honest that he cannot but keep his promise.    他那么样的诚实,不致于不守信用。   18.不管……    No matter what the task may be, I like to do it personally.    不管是什么样的工作,我都喜欢亲自来做。   19.绝对不是……    He is anything but a scholar.    他绝对不是一个学者。   20.不论如何……    On every account I will help you. = At any rate, I will help you.    不论如何我会帮你的忙。   21. 一……就……    no sooner...than...    scarcely...before...    hardly...then...    scarcely...when...    hardly...when...    scarcely...then...    as soon as    Scarcely had we gone on shore when the hurricane began to blow. (2)    我们一上岸,飓风就吹起来了。    The day has no sooner broken than he gets up to study(3)    天一亮,他就起来读书。   22.就……而论    In point of population and territory, China is the largest country in the world.      就人口与土地而论,中国是世界上最大的国家。   23.顺便……    In connection with my visit to (the) Sun Moon Lake, I shall investigate the education of Taichung and Nantou.    我要到台中与南投去考察教育,顺便去看看日月潭。   24.惟恐……    I study hard lest I should fail in the examination.    我用功读书,惟恐考试失败。   25.否则……    Work hard, or (otherwise/if not/else) you will fail.    用功啦,否则你会失败。 基础句式之4   26.不因……而减少……    I do not like to study English the less for its difficulties.    我不会因为英文的困难而减少其学习的兴趣。    Mary is ugly, but I love her none the less.    我不会因为玛琍不美而减低爱她的成份。   27.正因……更加……    As he has faults, I love him all the better.    正因他有缺点,我更加爱他。   28.越……,越……    The higher the mountain is, the colder the air is.    山越高,空气越冷。   29.不仅……而且……    He has not only knowledge but also experience.    他不仅有学问,而且有经验。   30.不用说……    He knows Latin, to say nothing of French.    他懂拉丁文,不用说法文了。    Not to mention riches and honor even clothing and bread cannot be got without toil.    不用说财富与荣誉了,就是衣食亦非不劳而获。   31.不堪……    There is no educating in such a stupid fellow.    如此笨蛋,不堪教育。   32.……无益    It is no use looking over the booken jar.    已造成的过错追悔无益。    It is useless to argue with that man.    与那个人争辩是无益的。   33.……只不过是……    He is nothing but a man of nonsequitur.    他只不过是一个荒谬之徒。   34.在此较级的用法,不一定要用"more…than"的方法,    有的用"something,""everything,""nothing"来作比较更有力量,且语言更加简明。以下面两段英文作一比较研究,便可看出那一段文字更为简明有力。    (A) Life is something, but love is everything;however, for the sake of freedom, both life and love are nothing.    (B) The price of life is high, but that of love is much higher; however, for the sake of freedom, both life and love can be discarded.    生命诚可贵,爱情价更高;但为自由故,二者皆可抛。   35.宁愿……而不……    A great man would rather be a sacrifice for righteousness than live in dishonor.    伟人宁愿为正义牺牲,而不愿忍辱偷生。 基础句式之5   36.最好……    Don’t be a busy-body; you had better do your own work with all your might.    你最好尽力工作;切勿搬弄是非。   37.非不……是不……     Not that I do not try, but that I am unable to do it.     非不为也,是不能也。   38.无所……但望……     Little do they hope but that their family should be safe.     他们无所愿求,但望家人安全。   39.非……不……     A man does not know the difficulty of anything unless he does it personally.     事非经过不知难。   40.不……焉得……    (A) No venture, no gain.    (B) No man can get the young tiger without entering its den.    不入虎穴,焉得虎子。   
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