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七夕的桥:一个880米长钢结构景观桥,聚合10组场景,步行体验式社区公园

发布于:2022-08-05 09:13:05 来自:建筑结构/钢结构工程 0 10

来源:钢结构设计

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作者:搜建筑

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上海·曹杨百禧公园景观桥

刘宇扬建筑事务所

▲ 中段过街天桥望向环球港双子塔 @ 朱润资


整体概   念与目标

基地长近一公里,宽度介于 10 米至 15 米之间,前身为真如货运铁路支线,后改为曹杨铁路农贸综合市场,2019 年市场关停后这个空间在不到一年的时间被重新规划建设为一个全新的、多层级、复合型步行体验式社区公园绿地。曹杨百禧公园以“3K”通廊为概念将艺术融入曹杨社区生活,以从多维度回应 2021 年上海城市空间艺术季。设计通过挖掘场地文脉、建构空间场景,得以重塑街道绿网、形成“长藤结瓜”般的南北贯穿的步行纽带,进一步拓展曹杨社区的有机更新。


▲ 曹杨十景图

▲ 设计草图


作为曾经的铁路用地和随后 20 多年农贸市场,这个特殊的线性空间属于超大城市里的典型剩余空间。当看到场地的一刹那,我们意识到在熟悉的城市中,仍有出乎意料的、蕴藏着惊喜的边角料空间,而如何再利用这类空间是城市化进程进入存量时代的必经思考。


Overall Concept and Goal. Once carrying the branch line of Zhenru freight rail and later Caoyang Farmers’ Market, the near to 1-kilometer-long and 10- to 15-meter-wide site has been re-programmed as a fresh, multilevel, and mixed-use park, walkable and community-centered, shortly after the market’s closure in 2019. Conceived as ‘3K Corridors’, Caoyang Centennial Park brings art to community life, echoing the theme of 2021 Shanghai SUSAS. Site contexts were discovered and scenes reimagined, so as to design a vine-and-melon-like walking belt, from north to south, to reshape the streets’ grassland system, giving a further step of organic renewal of Caoyang Community. The special linear site, having served as a railway land and then a market for over 20 years, is a typical left-over space in megacities. We realize at first sight that even in a familiar city are there unexpected and surprising offcut spaces, and we must consider how to recycle them in the time of urban redevelopment.

▲ 轴测爆炸图

▲ 区位图


背景与机缘


作为新中国成立后的第一个规划建设的工人新村,基地所处的曹杨新村代表了一个时代的集体记忆和历史进程。市场沿废弃铁路南北贯穿于紧邻的工人社区,区政府及其街道办为提升区域生活水平与空间品质,将该地目标定义为未来提供居民日常文化休闲活动的城市公园。


Background and Opportunity. Caoyang Xincun, the earliest planned workers’ community by the PRC’s government, bears special collective memories and historical processes of that age. Close to workers’ residences were market houses built along the abandoned railway on the site. To improve standard of living and spatial quality of Caoyang, the district government and its sub-district office adjusted the place to a city park for future leisure, cultural, and daily events. The project was on a tight schedule: 2 days to sketch a design and 2 weeks to improve and firm it up. After that, under the coordination of several departments, all works were carried out smoothly, the design followed by drawings, and concreting by steel-framing. Within 1 year the idea of park is becoming reality and put in use.


▲ 城市肌理

项目伊始仅以两天完成首版方案,以不足两周时间调整、敲定方案。 此后设计调整与深化协同施工开挖等工作在各个部门协调下同步推进,基础分段完工后预制钢构逐步进场,在不到一年的时间周期中从概念方案设计到最终落成投入使用。

▲ 北段入口曹杨客厅

▲ 兰溪路过街云桥

▲ 南段宝特瓶空间


设计策略与场景


狭窄的场地通过立体的设计手段被赋予 3 倍的空间延展,成为附近住宅区、学校、商业办公等不同使用人群在不同时段下休闲活动的边界拓展。由于地铁以及周边楼距限制,半地下层的开挖限度被控制在1米;首层向上抬高 1.4 米,预留出部分底层空间作为社区“收纳器”提供如艺术展览、社区活动、文创集市等临时性功能;另一方面,为了不造成公共空间对周边小区居民楼的干扰,南北贯通的高线步道被限定在离地 3.8 米的高度。


Design Strategy and Scenarios. Through a multilevel strategy, the narrow site expands itself threefold for different use by different people in nearby residences, schools, and offices. With the limitation on distances to underground tunnel basis and building of surroundings, it is excavated just 1 meter deep for a semi-basement. The first level is raised to 1.4 meters to spare more space for the semi-basement as a social ‘container’ for temporary programmes like artist exhibitions, community activities, creative markets, etc. Besides, the Highline way is limited to 3.8 meters high to avoid the public space possibly disturbing surrounding residential houses.


▲ 自然植被掩隐下的南段尽端 @ 朱润资

▲ 心连心舞台与小广场夜景 @ 朱润资

▲ 心连心舞台拱廊 @ 朱润资

▲ 线形与典型剖面

▲ 沙田月台下活动空间 @ 朱润资

▲ 沙田月台地面层活动空间 @ 朱润资

▲ 七夕廊桥鸟瞰 @ 朱润资

▲ 七夕廊桥结构 @ 朱润资


全长 880 米的景观长廊划分为南北两翼,聚合 10 组场景以满足聚集、活动、娱乐、休闲、运动等公共服务。立体长廊从核心向南北延展,串联社区活力,形成互不干扰又交错对话的多维立体空间。北端入口作为面向曹杨的城市客厅,将左右两侧的联农大厦、中桥大楼裙房纳入设计更新范围,使之围合地面与云桥形成高低两层的入口广场,可行进、可远眺。


In the 880-meter-long park, divided into the north and south parts, 10 scenarios are conceived to serve public functions such as gathering, activity, entertainment, leisure, sports, etc. Spreading from the middle to the north and south ends, the corridor connects social energy and forms multilevel spaces in separation from yet with dialogue each other. The north gate is the main entrance. With the nearby Lianong Building’s and Zhongqiao Tower’s fa?ade design integrated, the ground floor level and the Highline define together the entrance, facing Caoyang, like a city hall, where visitors can stroll and overlook. In the middle passes a double-line highway over Lanxi Road, integrating the park’s walking experience on both sides. Life on streets with walking residents and running cars all together then consists part of scenes in the park. A circular corridor connects two ways of the Highline in the south section, with two hackberry trees standing through voids among the structure. With branches stretching and leaves tangling, visitors can touch the green while walking on the Highline. We hope for as much green as possible in the park. Planting some trees, some grass, and some flowers makes it an ivy of steel.


▲ 南段桥下景观空间 @ 朱润资

▲ 南段底层开敞空间 @ 朱润资


中段跨越城市道路的双流线过街天桥整合了兰溪路两侧公园的步行体验,使得街道上的生活、熙熙攘攘的车流与行人共同组成了公园场景的一部分。 而南端以环形廊桥连接了左右的直线云桥,前后各有一颗朴树穿过云桥空隙,随着生长茎叶相互缠绕,行经其中可碰触枝叶。 我们希望尽可能地增加一些绿化,见缝插针地去种一些树,一些草,一些花,让这个整个空间除了钢铁, 也 有绿意。


▲ 南段宝特瓶下植物生态装置 @ 朱润资

▲ 南段半地下室入口空间 @ 朱润资

▲ 南段半地下室入口空间 @ 朱润资

▲ 南段半地下室入口及宝特瓶 @ 朱润资


ALYA 的三个比较重要的线型的公共空间——吴淞江边上的爱特公园、浦东民生码头贯通、杨浦滨江贯通,后两个也分别是 2017 年和 2019 年上海城市空间艺术季 SUSAS 的展场。


曹杨百禧公园的设计总结了我们过往几个项目的经验,  但它有别于一江一河的独特场景,它所处的环境恰恰是一个如此有烟火气,又如此容易被忽略的的典型社区场地中的非典型剩余空间。如何能够在这些剩余空间中找到新的潜力与能量,是我们下阶段工作与研究的重要启示。


Three important linear public spaces designed by ALYA: Aite Riverfront Park along Suzhou Creek, Pudong Minsheng pier connection project and Yangpu riverside connection project along Huangpu River. The latter two served separately as the 2017 and 2019 Shanghai SUSAS exhibition sites. We summed up the experience of these projects in the design of Caoyang Centennial Park, which, however, differs from riverside spaces. It is located in such a typical context, a worldly community while playing an untypical role likely to be neglected. The project is an important revelation for us to study and work out in the next step how to creatively exploit potentials and harness energies in these left-over spaces.

▲ 南段环形廊桥

▲ 南段1.4米活动层与七夕廊桥 @ 朱润资

▲ 兰溪路跨街天桥 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段入口曹杨客厅 @ 朱润资


拱棚——铁路月台的记忆


设计上有意识地在公园里创造了一系列连续的轻质拱棚架构,覆以遮阳膜。遮阳而非遮雨出于两点考虑:一是在线性的开放公园内重要的是感受自然;二是技术层面的考虑,一旦选用遮雨的膜,就需要承受更多风荷载,无法在建造层面上凸显云桥与拱棚的轻与重的张力对比。


▲ 北段篮球场活动空间与艺术墙 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段底层开敞空间 @ 朱润资


拱棚形式上的意义是勾起我们这种对铁路的记忆——曾经绿皮火车徐徐入月台的场景。月台有很多种形式,我们就选择一个最简单的拱形做不同的串联,也选择了五种不同颜色。因为样式是重复的、颜色是变化的,于是拱棚有了给整个公园分区的意义——在端头是一个蓝色,再往前有一个粉色——通过颜色可以简单地定位人的位置。


Arc Canopy: Reminiscent of Railway Platforms. We consciously designed a series of lightly structured arc canopies, membraned for sunshade. The membrane is not waterproof out of two considerations: first, we encourage to feel the nature in such a linear open park; second, technically, the canopy would bear more wind load if membraned waterproof, making the structural comparison invalid of lightness of canopies and heaviness of the Highline. Arc canopies are reminiscent of railway platforms by which traditional trains slowly pulled in. There were many forms of railway platforms, and we chose one of the simplest and colored it in five different ways. With the same form but changing colors, the light structures afford clear zoning for the park. Blue here and pink ahead, visitors can easily locate themselves through these arc canopies.


▲ 北段地面景观空间夜景 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段曹杨路入口夜景 @ 朱润资

▲ 树池


色彩选择


我们花费了很长时间选择颜色,并非一开始就想清楚的。主基调上当然希望是一个比较温和、不突兀的颜色,但如果只是灰色或银色,则表达不出社区的活力。我们打样了十种颜色配比方案。最终选择了在云桥钢结构主体为银色的基调下,内侧喷涂橙色,希望通过颜色的对撞展现朝气。


Color Match. We took a long time in color matching, with no clear idea at the beginning. We hoped it mild and fitting on the whole, while worrying that mere silver or grey color cannot convey the energy of communities. We tried more than 10 schemes of color combinations and finally decided to keep the main structure silver-grey and paint the inner sides orange, in hope that the color comparison would express a sense of vigor. We considered especially space under 1.4 meters high. The semi-basement, differing from light and open ground floor space, is dark and narrow. We chose the combination of silver-white and yellow for the dark to make it harmonize with places above the ground. The silver-white color is somehow like pearl, mixed with much metal powder, looking apparently different from the silver-grey color painted on the structures above. We weighed the experience in the semi-basement over the unitarity of colors, a decision unlikely to be made by most architects. This challenge is unprecedented for us and demands some breakthroughs.


▲ 北段曹杨路入口鸟瞰 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段半地下室入口 @ 朱润资


1.4 米标高以下的空间则有不同考虑。 半地下空间的客观条件是狭窄、暗淡的,如何让暗的空间与地面之上亮的空间相协调? 我们选择了与云桥不同的色彩方案: 半地下室顶板的钢构以银白色为主,内侧喷涂黄色。 这种银白色是一种珍珠白,银粉比例较大,与地面以上的银灰色不同。 我们判断半地下空间体验感的重要性高于颜色的统一性,这可能是大部分建筑师都不会做的决定,也是之前的项目没有遇到过的挑战、突破了一点常规的思维。


▲ 北段半地下空间 @ 朱润资


▲ 楼梯与廊道顶棚


作为边界与连接的围墙——与社区和公共机构对话


我们的设计团队同街道办一起与每一个社区都有认真地对话、探讨、磋商。百禧公园周边共有十一个居民社区,还有若干个公共机构。建设公园与社区或机构的边界其实需要多方的对话,通过沟通得知对方的需求、彼此的困难与界限,最终形成良好的连接。

在百禧公园围墙方案的设计过程中,我们产生了不下十种墙与门的组合类型。


其中有水洗石饰面的实墙,有在不同程度上允许视线交流的钢构围墙,也有两者的结合。我们希望以不同类型的墙与门来尊重社区的意愿,通过与居民讨论、协商共同设计公园与社区的连接与边界。有的社区选择实墙、选择不开门,另一些选择通透的钢构围墙,希望公园的绿色也能渗透到社区里来。所以顺着百禧公园一路走过去能观察到围墙的变化。 


Wall as Boundary and Connection: to Dialogue with Communities and Institutions. Our design team, together with the sub-district office, have had earnest dialogues with each residence nearby. 11 residences and several public institutions surround Centennial Park. The setting boundary between the formers and the latter actually needed communications, through which we got to know their requirements and problems, thus able to connect in a bette r and more suitable way. While designing walls for Centennial park, we worked out no less than 10 combinations of walls and gates. Some are block walls finished with washed stone, some steel structure that permits eye contact between two sides of the boundary, and others are a combination of the above two. We offered different schemes to show respect to community, in hope that through discussion we, together with the residents, would co-create the connection between and boundary of the park and their residences. Some residents like block walls and no gates, while some prefers steel ones that enables plants in the park to grow into their residence. Therefore, the change of walls can be seen while walking along Centennial Park.


▲ 南段沙田月台建造过程 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段多功能活动场地建造过程 @ 朱润资

▲ 北段宝特瓶三线链接建造过程 @ 朱润资


兰溪路过街天桥


兰溪路过街天桥拥有双线通道,出于几个原因:一是双喜临门、双桥跨越,寓意是个好兆头;二是对环球港的双子塔有回应;三是考虑循环流线,在云桥上来回行走可以避免回头路;最重要的是,双线强化了过街天桥的空间感。兰溪路两侧都是百公园的范围、但城市道路不是;双线的过街天桥整合了两侧公园的步行体验,使得天桥也被认为是公园的一部分。


百禧公园跨越了街道,使得街道上的生活、熙熙攘攘的车流与行人共同组成了公园场景的一部分。故而公园是一个融入社区、结合社区的公园,而非一个封闭的、有围墙的公园。过街天桥创造了一种对望的关系,一种从上到下能够互看的关系,形成有趣而灵动的。


▲ 心连心舞台



▲ 总平图

▲  剖面图

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▲  剖面图

▲ 大样节点

▲ 大样节点

▲ 大样节点


项目名称:曹杨百禧公园
项目地点:上海市普陀区曹杨新村街道曹杨路875号
项目类型:市政景观
基地面积:10165 平方米
建筑面积:2892 平方米
设计时间:2020.10-2021.08
建设时间:2021.01-2021.09
设计单位:刘宇扬建筑事务所
概念阶段:刘宇扬、梁俊杰、刘泽弘、吴祺琳(实习生)
深化阶段:刘宇扬、吴从宝、刘泽弘、徐嘉瑞、赵明明、刘玉、王茵、钱铮、孙宇昂(实习生)、侯睿菲(实习生)
施工配合:刘宇扬、吴从宝、刘泽弘
项目管理:吴从宝、刘泽弘
设计范围:总体规划、建筑设计、灯光设计、标识设计
景观设计:上海市园林设计研究总院有限公司
导视设计:萬邦智合|聿凡数字科技(上海)有限公司
结构及机电设计:华东建筑设计研究院有限公司
施工总包:中国中铁市政环境建设有限公司
建设单位:上海市普陀区人民政府曹杨新村街道办事处
结构类型:钢结构
主要建筑材料:EPDM塑胶地面、不锈钢条筛板、玻璃钢格栅+双层玻璃(可上人天窗)、镀锌钢格栅、不锈钢绳网、丝印玻璃、氟碳漆喷涂钢板
主要室内材料:环氧树脂地坪、GRC挂板
主要景观材料:花岗岩、水洗石
建筑造价:/平方米,(单价,总价)
文字:刘宇扬、梁俊杰
摄影:朱润资,梁俊豪
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建筑结构抗震设计常见问题

1、缺乏岩土工程勘察资料或资料不全。有的在扩初设计阶段还缺建筑场地岩土工程的勘察资料,有的在扩初设计会审之后就直接进入了施工图设计,有的在规划设计或方案设计会审后就直接进入了施工图设计。无岩土工程勘察资料,设计缺少了必要的依据。 2、结构的平面布置。外形不规则、不对称、凹凸变化尺度大、形心质心偏心大,同一结构单元内,结构平面形状和刚度不均匀不对称,平面长度过长等。 3、一个结构单元内采用两种不同的结构受力体系。如一半采用砌体承重,而另一半或局部采用全框架承重或排架承重;底框砖房中一半为底框,而另一半为砖墙落地承重[这种情况常发现在平面纵轴与街道轴线相交的住宅,其底层为商店,设计成一半为底框砖房(有的为二层底框),而另一半为砖墙落地自承,造成平面刚度和竖向刚度二者都产生突变,对抗震十分不利]。

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